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Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents Editor s Bio. Summary Wireless sensor networks WSNs utilize fast, cheap, and effective applications to imitate the human intelligence capability of sensing on a wider distributed scale.
- Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: An Overview.
- Mini Review ARTICLE.
- Citation Tools.
Bringing together the contributions of researchers and experts in the field, this book explores: Applications of WSNs, data-centric storage, environmental forest monitoring, and the fundamentals of wireless body area networks Mobile medium access control MAC protocols, cooperative diversity sensor systems, and WSNs operating in IEEE Request an e-inspection copy.
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Items Subtotal. Our aim was to include papers from two general themes: 1 low-cost environmental sensors networks, and 2 low-cost technologies that have direct relevance to low-cost environmental sensor networks. To achieve this, we used the following search criteria:. The literature was then filtered to include only papers that were deemed explicitly related to environmental monitoring. To achieve this, we only included papers from Web of Science categories that were related to the geographical, environmental or earth sciences see Supplementary Table S1 for list of categories.
This step returned articles from journals and conferences proceedings. These papers were then assessed in turn by examining the abstract or full manuscript to extract: i general information publication year, country and study type ; ii information on the environmental system studied H 1 ; i. In order to consider how the existing studies utilize sensor networks, we also checked if the publications were: 1 focused on an environmental application of the technologies described; 2 describing a sensor network rather than a single sensor; or 3 focused on the measurement and collection of environmental data rather than the performance of the network per say.
There were publications meeting all the three criteria. More detailed information on this procedure can be found in Supplementary Table S2. All data collation and analysis was conducted using R version 3.
WSN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK IEEE PAPER 2018
The concept of low-cost environmental sensor networks appears to have first emerged in the literature in Since this date there has been a steady increase in the number of publications per year, with the highest numbers 32 and 33 recorded in and , respectively Figure 1A. Interestingly, roughly coincides with the development and release of the Arduino board an inexpensive, consumer orientated microcontroller board 1 and the increase in publications post also coincides with the release of the low cost, single board computer, Raspberry Pi 2.
Figure 1. Number of publications as a function of: A year of publication, —; B country in which the study was conducted; C the type of study or paper; D broad study system s , and; E sub-categories identified within the air, water and earth study systems. The global distribution of the analyzed studies displayed a distinct bias toward developed countries particularly North America and Western Europe with no studies from Africa and only a limited number from other developing regions Figure 1B. This is concerning as, for example, the low number of African hydrological or meteorological monitoring stations hamper policy development and environmental management van de Giesen et al.
However, there are some projects underway such as the TAHMO project 3 which aims to install 20, low-cost weather stations across Africa. Most studies were single case studies with few review or conceptual articles captured by our literature search Figure 1C. This disparity is likely to represent the relatively recent development of LCSNs as tools for environmental monitoring applications, particularly those used in peer reviewed scientific studies.
The review papers were either focused on more general technological advances in environmental monitoring and not focused solely on low-cost networks e. Rai et al. When considering the study system at a relatively coarse scale the literature appeared to support H 1 i. Given the long history of sensor use for in situ atmospheric monitoring, particularly for meteorological variables, and limited use of sensors for monitoring ecological systems these results may not be surprising Hart and Martinez, This was unexpected given the historical reliance on passive sampling and expensive laboratory equipment for analysis in air quality studies Snyder et al.
It appears public awareness of health risks Ali et al. The water quantity studies were predominately focused on flooding e. The water quality studies represented a mixture of pollution monitoring networks e. Studies on earth systems were evenly distributed between those with a geo-hazard focus, such as landslides and earthquakes Pumo et al. A further category was identified that represented studies focused on communication protocols or network architecture.
An interesting trend was identified with many of these studies being pre e.
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When considering how existing studies collect environmental data and how they are utilized e. Firstly, most sensor networks used fixed point sensors and data were transferred wirelessly either to a base station, remote server or the cloud Figures 2A,B. The use of mobile sensors is more common for ecological systems, particularly tracking animal movement e. Wired sensor networks or systems that required direct data download from local storage were associated with either: 1 scientific studies in which networks were maintained to answer a specific research objective or test a new senor type Barnard et al.
Figure 2. The distributions of publications based on sensor and data collection properties.
Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) topics for research and thesis
B The breakdown between wireless transmission of data to a base station or cloud-based server vs. C The number of studies which highlighted networks for collection and data storage only, as opposed to studies with a data analysis component after collection, including visualization, analytics and control. E The number of publications that explicitly considered sustainability principles. F The degree of stakeholder and end-user engagement in the study.
This result appears to support H 2 i. Most storage-only-networks were used in scientific studies with analysis conducted offline by researchers. For example, Pohl et al. Monitoring networks with online analytics and visualization were more common in recent studies where some degree of human safety or health was related to the sensed parameters.
A further type of monitoring network with analytics and visualization was associated with agriculture Kubicek et al. Thirdly, the majority of studies More recent studies have collected data to complement existing monitoring efforts i. These were in many cases associated with human health Rogulski, or climate impacts Shusterman et al.
follow link It should be noted that very few studies embraced the principles of open science and open data more generally however see Rettig et al. Given the relatively small number of studies with multiple stakeholders However, there are some interesting examples of multiple stakeholder participation e. The involvement of citizen scientists can improve the functionalities and impacts of low-cost sensor networks by supporting its operation, enhancing adaptation, information provisioning and resilience building Horita et al. In return, some sensor network applications have tailored designs to improve the user experience of citizen scientists Schneider et al.
The application of low-cost sensor networks has been highlighted as a key area that can transform environmental governance, yet long-term environmental governance requires sustainable and long-term operations of low-cost sensor networks Bakker and Ritts, ; Paul et al. Despite this, most studies identified in this review do not explicitly consider sustainability One possible explanation for this could be that most studies are from developed regions with significant resources and infrastructure cf.
Figure 1B. Sustainability can be achieved through either technical improvements via means such as optimization of energy efficiency Gleonec et al. Most of the reviewed studies identified with a sustainability element were associated with explicit and direct human benefits, such as monitoring a particular resource e. To summarize, LCSNs are increasing in popularity but there is still a distinct bias toward developed countries, particularly Western Europe and North America, and certain study systems e. From this systematic literature review, three key challenges and opportunities were identified, which can also guide future technical development of LCSNs.
Wireless sensor Networks
Firstly, data outputs from LCSNs need to be processed and presented to benefit multiple stakeholders including scientists, the general public and policy makers. While there is still a paucity of examples with studies exploring down-stream data activities such as analysis, decision-making and system control examples exist for certain study purposes e. Secondly, there is a clear need to improve data integration and sharing.