Point of view The perspective from which a story is told. In first-person point of view , the narrator involves him or herself in the story. In third-person point of view , the narrator does not participate in the story. Omniscient narrators see and know all: they can witness any event in any time or place and are privy to the inner thoughts and feelings of all characters. Remember that the narrator and the author are not the same thing! Diction Word choice. Whether a character uses dry, clinical language or flowery prose with lots of exclamation points can tell you a lot about his or her attitude and personality.
Syntax Word order and sentence construction. Ernest Hemingway, for example, is known for writing in very short, straightforward sentences, while James Joyce characteristically wrote in long, incredibly complicated lines. Tone The mood or feeling of the text. Diction and syntax often contribute to the tone of a work. A novel written in short, clipped sentences that use small, simple words might feel brusque, cold, or matter-of-fact.
Imagery Language that appeals to the senses, representing things that can be seen, smelled, heard, tasted, or touched. Figurative language Language that is not meant to be interpreted literally. A good thesis will be: Arguable. Provable through textual evidence. Trace Choose an image—for example, birds, knives, or eyes—and trace that image throughout Macbeth. Debate Is the society depicted in good for its citizens? However long it is, your introduction needs to: Provide any necessary context.
Present your thesis. This usually happens at or very near the end of your introduction. Indicate the shape of the essay to come. Your introduction should not: Be vague. Open with any grandiose assertions. Wildly praise the work. Go off-topic. The organization of this middle section of your essay will largely be determined by the argumentative strategy you use, but no matter how you arrange your thoughts, your body paragraphs need to do the following: Begin with a strong topic sentence.
Fully and completely develop a single thought. Use transitions effectively. A good conclusion will: Do more than simply restate the thesis. Synthesize the arguments, not summarize them. Move from the specific to the general. Stay relevant.
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Avoid making overblown closing statements. Antagonist The entity that acts to frustrate the goals of the protagonist.
The antagonist is usually another character but may also be a non-human force. Character A person, animal, or any other thing with a personality that appears in a narrative. Climax The moment of greatest intensity in a text or the major turning point in the plot. Conflict The central struggle that moves the plot forward. Imagery Language that brings to mind sense-impressions, representing things that can be seen, smelled, heard, tasted, or touched.
Motif A recurring idea, structure, contrast, or device that develops or informs the major themes of a work of literature. Narrative A story. Narrator The person sometimes a character who tells a story; the voice assumed by the writer. The narrator and the author of the work of literature are not the same person.
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Plot The arrangement of the events in a story, including the sequence in which they are told, the relative emphasis they are given, and the causal connections between events. Point of view The perspective that a narrative takes toward the events it describes. Protagonist The main character around whom the story revolves. Setting The location of a narrative in time and space. Setting creates mood or atmosphere.
Subplot A secondary plot that is of less importance to the overall story but may serve as a point of contrast or comparison to the main plot. Symbol An object, character, figure, or color that is used to represent an abstract idea or concept. Unlike an emblem, a symbol may have different meanings in different contexts. Syntax The way the words in a piece of writing are put together to form lines, phrases, or clauses; the basic structure of a piece of writing.
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Theme A fundamental and universal idea explored in a literary work. An author communicates voice through tone, diction, and syntax. Next section Suggested Essay Topics.
Brave New World: Popular pages. Take a Study Break. It is this mentality that provides the basis for the archaic Utopia, characterized by the reversibility of time back to the Golden Age of new Creation , by a radical integration of the individual into reality here and now, and informed transcendentally or not by divine meaning. As a symbol, the archaic Utopia's attainment of Creation anew implies the attainment of those goals George Kateb has included as essential to Utopianism: "peace, abundance, leisure, equality, consonance of men and their environment" Utopia and Its Enemies 11 , but also adds "hope," "liberation" from authority and time , "freedom of speech," "power" and "creativity"--all on behalf of the individual as Carnival well illustrates.go
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It should also be pointed out that this archaic Utopia is "temporary," "recurrent" and "small-scale. What, then, was lost, and what was retained, of this archaic Utopia by its recontextualization and revaluation as an official literate and literary Utopia? The most fundamental change may be seen foremost in the archaic Utopia being written , which after a fashion also indicates the most faithful retention of archaic values.
For example, the act of authorship is a cosmogonic act that implies as much freedom, power and creativity as Eliade imputes to the archaic mentality. There are, of course, psychological and imaginative limits here, as well as constraints on freedom of speech if the book is meant to be published, but these limitations are also operative for the archaic mentality as well.
Even so, the very act of writing literally returns the author to the beginning, to a mythical time before Creation. Past time and real-world profane time are abolished and, like Marduk, the author confronts Tiamat's primordial chaos "chaos" means "gap" in Greek in the empty white page. A struggle ensues; and the author "creates the cosmos from the fragments of Tiamat's torn body" Eliade 55 --the remaining white space between the words, and even within the letters themselves--until Creation is complete.
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The text, then, is literally a record of exemplary gestures made originally by a world-creator. The analogy continues even more precisely at the level of the reader. Moreover, the distinction between deity-author and mortal-reader is also maintained, insofar as the author if only in retrospect knows the whole of the text omnisciently relative to the reader.