We demonstrate that biofouling enhances microplastic deposition to marine sediments, and our findings should improve microplastic transport models.
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Dysentery, an acute infectious disease still prevalent in many parts of the world, especially in developing counties, is caused by a group of bacteria known as Shigella. Because of the sensitivity of dysentery to climate change, the relationship between dysentery incidence and climate factors has become a growing research interest.
Previous studies have mainly focused on identifying key climate factors and examining the relationship between dysentery incidence and climate change. However, there has been little research on modeling and projecting the occurrence of dysentery based on key climate factors. Here we selected Binyang County in China, a subtropical monsoon climate region where epidemics are typical, as the study area.
We then developed a climate-dysentery model and validated its reliability. The projected results showed that May to August were high-incidence periods, and the occurrence of dysentery exhibited an upward trend in the future. Accordingly, we provided two practical recommendations for defeating dysentery: seasonal control in the study area, and advocacy of prevention in potentially pandemic regions. This study hopes to provide a theoretical basis for developing a dysentery warning system from the perspective of climate change.
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Robust, quantitative comparisons of environmental effects across energy sources can support development of energy planning strategies that meet growing demand while managing and minimizing undesirable effects on environmental resources. Multicriteria analyses of energy systems often use a suite of indicators to make such comparisons, but those indicators and their units of measure vary among studies.
We reviewed papers that described or applied energy indicators to compare environmental effects of different primary energy sources to answer four questions: 1 what environmental indicators have been used in multicriteria energy-source comparisons?
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For reviewed studies, we quantified the number of unique indicators and the diversity of indicators used to measure different effects. We also recorded the specific measurement units applied to quantify each indicator, the energy sources evaluated, and the continent where each study was conducted. While we found that many environmental effects of energy development have been analyzed across multiple sources, indicators were frequently measured, interpreted, and applied in ways that are not directly comparable, and some known environmental effects were infrequently assessed.
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We also found an emphasis on applying indicators to renewable energy sources; assessing current and potential energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, would greatly clarify the full suite of tradeoffs among sources and can inform energy development strategies that minimize adverse environmental effects. Overall, our review indicated that making comprehensive comparisons of the effects of energy development across sources may require efforts to standardize how effects are measured, synthesize effects literature into an open-source database, expand the range of environmental effects analyzed, and establish consistent frameworks for comparison.
Daily precipitation persistence is affected by various atmospheric and land processes and provides complementary information to precipitation amount statistics for understanding the precipitation dynamics. In this study, daily precipitation persistence is assessed in an exhaustive ensemble of observation-based daily precipitation datasets and evaluated in global climate model GCM simulations for the period of — Subsequently, P dd P ww , defined as the probability of a dry wet day to be followed by another dry wet day is calculated to represent daily precipitation persistence.
The analysis focuses on the long-term mean and interannual variability IAV of the two indices. Both multi-observation and multi-model means show higher values of P dd than P ww. GCMs overestimate P ww with a relatively homogeneous spatial bias pattern. Overall, our results highlight systematic model errors in daily precipitation persistence that are substantially larger than the already considerable spread across observational products.
These findings also provide insights on how precipitation persistence biases on a daily time scale relate to well-documented persistence biases at longer time scales in state-of-the-art GCMs. Discriminating between climate- and human-induced variation in rangeland quality poses a major challenge for developing policy to sustain herder livelihoods and alleviate herder poverty. We contrasted changes in rangeland vegetation cover across a region—the Altai Mountains of central Asia China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia —that juxtaposes strongly contrasting social, political and economic conditions across a community of herders of shared cultural background all of Kazakh origin.
Our analysis focused on a satellite-derived vegetation index Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor during the period —, which included the breakup of the Soviet Union in and heralded a transition away from pervasive state control on herding practices in many parts of the region. Grassland cover increased with decreasing elevation and increasing precipitation. Grassland also decreased under increased livestock density but was largely unresponsive to the dramatic changes that occurred in the sociopolitical context for grazing practices.
However, all reports show conservation efforts are falling short of their objectives and the status of biodiversity in the EU continues to decline. Here, we propose four key avenues for the next Strategy, currently under discussion, to make EU conservation efforts more effective. First, we suggest the next Biodiversity Strategy should ensure legal coverage for threatened species not listed in the EU Habitats and Birds Directives, which currently cover only Second, halting biodiversity loss requires threatened species to be adequately managed. To this end, the potential of the extant Natura should be fully released.
Already designated protected areas PAs hold more species than currently declared as target for management, leaving an opportunity to further manage more threatened species. Third, to address dynamism associated to climate and land use change, conservation management should be expanded outside PAs, using the planned network of Green Infrastructure. Fourth, while more funding is required to properly implement the Biodiversity Strategy, the improvements we suggest can be made more cost-effective by using systematic planning approaches and better integration of conservation policy in other sectorial policies, such as the Common Agriculture Policy.
While existing policy mechanisms can already be used to implement some of these recommendations, revised policies should seek better integration of conservation into other sectorial policies, as well as efficient allocation and use of funds to increase the efficiency of conservation efforts. Connectivity conservation is an emergent approach to counteracting landscape fragmentation and enhancing resilience to climate change at local, national, and global scales.
While policy that promotes connectivity is advancing, there has been no systematic, evidence-based study that assesses whether connectivity conservation plans CCPs resulted in conservation outcomes, and identifies specific plan attributes that may favor successful implementation. To fill this gap, we gathered terrestrial CCPs from around the world, characterized attributes of plans by surveying plan authors, and conducted semi-structured interviews with authors and implementers of 77 CCPs.
The production of CCPs started around and has increased markedly in all parts of the world, most notably in the United States led by NGOs and a few states, with little federal involvement , Europe led by the EU and national policies and implemented at local levels , and the Republic of South Africa where national legislation mandates each municipality to map corridors and zone all land by All of the plans that we examined in detail were followed by implementation actions such as crossing structures, ecological restoration, land purchases or easements, recognition of corridors through zoning or government designation, and public engagement.
Interviewees emphasized the importance of initial buy-in from key government stakeholders, stakeholder involvement beyond initial buy-in, minimizing staff turnover, and transparent and repeatable procedures. Our quantitative and qualitative analyses similarly suggested that implementation of a CCP was enhanced by enduring partnerships among stakeholders, continuity of leadership, specific recommendations in the CCP using tools appropriately selected from a large toolbox, the existence of enabling legislation and policy, a transparent and repeatable scientific approach, adequate funding, and public outreach.
Background : Current climate change mitigation policies, including the Paris Agreement, are based on territorial greenhouse gas GHG accounting.
This neglects the understanding of GHG emissions embodied in trade. As a solution, consumption-based accounting CBA that reveals the lifecycle emissions, including transboundary flows, is gaining support as a complementary information tool. CBA is particularly relevant in cities that tend to outsource a large part of their production-based emissions to their hinterlands. While CBA has so far been used relatively little in practical policymaking, it has been used widely by scientists. Methods and design : The purpose of this systematic review, which covers more than studies, is to reflect the policy implications of consumption-based carbon footprint CBCF studies at different spatial scales.
The review was conducted by reading through the discussion sections of the reviewed studies and systematically collecting the given policy suggestions for different spatial scales. We used both numerical and qualitative methods to organize and interpret the findings of the review. Review results and discussion : The motivation for the review was to investigate whether the unique consumption perspective of CBA leads to similarly unique policy features.
We found that various carbon pricing policies are the most widely supported policy instrument in the relevant literature. However, overall, there is a shortage of discussion on policy instruments, since the policy discussions focus on policy outcomes, such as behavioral change or technological solutions.
In addition, some policy recommendations are conflicting. Particularly, urban density and compact city policies are supported by some studies and questioned by others. To clarify the issue, we examined how the results regarding the relationship between urban development and the CBCF vary.
The review provides a concise starting point for policymakers and future research by summarizing the timely policy implications. Climate change poses a significant challenge to primary industries and adaptation will be required to reduce detrimental impacts and realise opportunities. Despite the breadth of information to support adaptation planning however, knowledge is fragmented, obscuring information needs, hampering strategic planning and constraining decision-making capacities. In this letter, we present and apply the Adaptation Knowledge Cycle AKC , a heuristic for rapidly evaluating and systematising adaptation research by analytical foci: Impacts, Implications, Decisions or Actions.
The letter draws on the results of systematic review, empirical analysis, workshops, interviews, narrative analyses and pathways planning to synthesise information and identify knowledge gaps. Results also provide insight into what we know and need to know with respect to undertaking adaptation planning. With the development of tools and processes to inform decision making under conditions of uncertainty—such as adaptation pathways—it is increasingly important to efficiently and accurately determine knowledge needs.
The combination of systematic data collection techniques, and heuristics such as the AKC may provide researchers and stakeholders with an efficient, robust tool to review and synthesise existing knowledge, and identify emerging research priorities. Results can in turn support the design of targeted research and inform adaptation strategies for policy and practice.
Social-ecological network SEN concepts and tools are increasingly used in human-environment and sustainability sciences. We take stock of this budding research area to further show the strength of SEN analysis for complex human-environment settings, identify future synergies between SEN and wider human-environment research, and provide guidance about when to use different kinds of SEN approaches and models. We characterize SEN research along a spectrum specifying the degree of explicit network representation of system components and dynamics.
PERC: The Property and Environment Research Center
Results show a larger number of papers focus on methodological advancement and applied ends. While there has been some development and testing of theories, this remains an area for future work and would help develop SENs as a unique field of research, not just a method. Authors have studied diverse systems, while mainly focusing on the problem of social-ecological fit alongside a scattering of other topics.
There is strong potential, however, to engage other issues central to human-environment studies. Analyzing the simultaneous effects of multiple social, environmental, and coupled processes, change over time, and linking network structures to outcomes are also areas for future advancement. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of fully articulated SEN research, a necessary step that can help scholars develop comparable cases and fill research gaps. More Review articles. Illegal land-use change inside protected areas PAs in the global south is common. A podcast on the role of property rights in incentivizing private conservation efforts.
Although any change concerning this popular law generates understandable concern, many of these changes will benefit on-the-ground conservation by reducing conflict.
Catherine Semcer's testimony before the U. Earth Day is a moment to celebrate the gains of conservation and the natural world. A collection of papers exploring the role market design plays in the distributional consequences of the transition to market-based environmental protection. Toggle navigation.
Connect Facebook Twitter Search. Semcer Why I joined researchers in signing an open letter in Science Magazine. Semcer Statement for the U. Look to History to Reform the Antiquities Act Jonathan Wood Shifting responsibility for protecting federal lands back to Congress can reduce conflict while promoting deliberation and compromise.
A podcast on the important role of trophy hunting in African wildlife conservation.