Volume 2 Volume 1 Profile on PlumX. Najafpour, Z.
Reuse of controls from nested case-control studies in cancer research
International Journal of Health Policy and Management , 8 5 , International Journal of Health Policy and Management , 8, 5, , International Journal of Health Policy and Management , ; 8 5 : This study aims to investigate the associations between risk factors among fallers in comparison with the control group.
Methods A prospective nested case control study was performed on patients who fell and controls were matched with the patients at risk of fall in the same ward and during the same time. This study was conducted in a university educational hospital in Tehran with beds during a 9-month period.
The data included demographics, comorbidities, admission details, types of medication, clinical conditions, and activities before or during the fall.
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The data was collected from clinical records, hospital information system, error reporting system and observations, and the interviews with the fallers, their families and care givers physicians, nurses, etc. Data analysis was conducted through time-based matching using a multi-level analysis. These factors were found to be associating with more odds for a falling accident among patients. Conclusion It seems that a combination of both patient-related factors and history of medication should be considered. Moreover, modifiable clinical characteristics of patients such as vision improvement, provision of manual transfer aid, diabetes control, regular toilet program, and drug modification should be considered during the formulation of interventions.
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Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Reducing serious injury from falls in two veterans' hospital medical-surgical units. J Nurs Care Qual. Predictors of serious injury among hospitalized patients evaluated for falls. J Hosp Med. The relationship of falls to injury among hospital in-patients.
Moreover, corresponding variables were created by including only two of the exposure variables at a time i. These eight case-control sets were accordingly only included in the logistic regression models regarding HCB. The corresponding figures among the controls were 0. When the upper two quartiles i. The risk for hypospadias was statistically significantly increased in the highest exposure quartile of HCB as compared to the three lowest HCB exposure categories merged into one reference group.
The obtained OR was 1. No statistically significant trends were observed between maternal serum concentrations of POP mixtures and the risk for hypospadias Table 4. However, when performing further statistical analyses, the present study indicates that in utero exposure to HCB may be a risk factor for hypospadias.
Are Nested Case-Control Studies Biased? : Epidemiology
Maternal PCB concentrations showed an decreased risk although not significant. A recently published study by Giordano and colleagues found a fivefold increased risk of having a boy with hypospadias among Italian women with serum HCB concentrations above 0. To the best of our knowledge no other studies have investigated the association between HCB and hypospadias. The exposure levels in our study were very similar to those in the Italian study.
Giordano and colleagues had 37 cases included their study. These estimates were higher as compared to the ones observed in the present study.