Nested case control study epidemiology

Volume 2 Volume 1 Profile on PlumX. Najafpour, Z.

Reuse of controls from nested case-control studies in cancer research

International Journal of Health Policy and Management , 8 5 , International Journal of Health Policy and Management , 8, 5, , International Journal of Health Policy and Management , ; 8 5 : This study aims to investigate the associations between risk factors among fallers in comparison with the control group.

Methods A prospective nested case control study was performed on patients who fell and controls were matched with the patients at risk of fall in the same ward and during the same time. This study was conducted in a university educational hospital in Tehran with beds during a 9-month period.

The data included demographics, comorbidities, admission details, types of medication, clinical conditions, and activities before or during the fall.


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The data was collected from clinical records, hospital information system, error reporting system and observations, and the interviews with the fallers, their families and care givers physicians, nurses, etc. Data analysis was conducted through time-based matching using a multi-level analysis. These factors were found to be associating with more odds for a falling accident among patients. Conclusion It seems that a combination of both patient-related factors and history of medication should be considered. Moreover, modifiable clinical characteristics of patients such as vision improvement, provision of manual transfer aid, diabetes control, regular toilet program, and drug modification should be considered during the formulation of interventions.

Highlights Supplementary File 1 Download. Trends in fall-related hospital admissions in older persons in the Netherlands. Arch Intern Med. Cost effectiveness of patient education for the prevention of falls in hospital: economic evaluation from a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Med. Fall and injury prevention.

Annu Rev Nurs Res. Transforming care at the bedside how-to guide: Reducing patient injuries from falls. Characteristics and circumstances of falls in a hospital setting: a prospective analysis. J Gen Intern Med. Risk factors and injury associated with falls in elderly hospitalized patients in a community hospital. J Patient Saf. Falls in English and Welsh hospitals: a national observational study based on retrospective analysis of 12 months of patient safety incident reports. Qual Saf Health Care. The cost of serious fall-related injuries at three Midwestern hospitals.

The extra resource burden of in-hospital falls: a cost of falls study. Med J Aust.

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Falls and confidence related quality of life outcome measures in an older British cohort. Postgrad Med J. Stevens JA. Falls among older adults--risk factors and prevention strategies. J Safety Res. Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention.

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Age Ageing. Consequences of falling in older men and women and risk factors for health service use and functional decline. Inpatient fall prevention programs as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. Predicting which patient will fall again J Adv Nurs. Falls and consequent injuries in hospitalized patients: effects of an interdisciplinary falls prevention program. Effects of an intervention to increase bed alarm use to prevent falls in hospitalized patients: a cluster randomized trial. Does access to bed-chair pressure sensors reduce physical restraint use in the rehabilitative care setting?

Phoenix Nested Studies

J Clin Nurs. A prospective study to identify the fall-prone patient.

Soc Sci Med. Validity of the Morse Fall Scale implemented in an electronic medical record system. Falls risk among a very old home-dwelling population. Scand J Prim Health Care. Predictors of serious fall injury in hospitalized patients. Clin Nurs Res. Incidence of functional limitation in older adults: the impact of gender, race, and chronic conditions.


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  7. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Reducing serious injury from falls in two veterans' hospital medical-surgical units. J Nurs Care Qual. Predictors of serious injury among hospitalized patients evaluated for falls. J Hosp Med. The relationship of falls to injury among hospital in-patients.

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    Moreover, corresponding variables were created by including only two of the exposure variables at a time i. These eight case-control sets were accordingly only included in the logistic regression models regarding HCB. The corresponding figures among the controls were 0. When the upper two quartiles i. The risk for hypospadias was statistically significantly increased in the highest exposure quartile of HCB as compared to the three lowest HCB exposure categories merged into one reference group.

    The obtained OR was 1. No statistically significant trends were observed between maternal serum concentrations of POP mixtures and the risk for hypospadias Table 4. However, when performing further statistical analyses, the present study indicates that in utero exposure to HCB may be a risk factor for hypospadias.

    Are Nested Case-Control Studies Biased? : Epidemiology

    Maternal PCB concentrations showed an decreased risk although not significant. A recently published study by Giordano and colleagues found a fivefold increased risk of having a boy with hypospadias among Italian women with serum HCB concentrations above 0. To the best of our knowledge no other studies have investigated the association between HCB and hypospadias. The exposure levels in our study were very similar to those in the Italian study.

    Giordano and colleagues had 37 cases included their study. These estimates were higher as compared to the ones observed in the present study.