Pressure was measured by using the gas pressure sensor. The same sensor was used throughout the experiment. Also the shortest tube was used to reduce systematic errors. As soon as the hydrogen peroxide is put inside the test tube, it is immediately capped with the gas pressure sensor to record data. The amount of enzyme is set to 10 microliters. Micropipette was used for accurate measurement, because an extra drop of enzyme can alter the rate of reaction significantly. Since temperature is directly related to the rate of reaction, the entire experiment was conducted in the lab at a constant room temperature, which is.
Volume of hydrogen peroxide Even though the solutions differ in solution concentration, the volume for all of the solutions stayed the same, which is 1. For accurate measurement, micropipette was used throughout. Size and type of test tubes The size and type of test tubes were constant, because they can alter the pressure.
The same size and type of test tubes were used throughout. Hydrogen peroxide A new hydrogen peroxide was used because hydrogen peroxide can degenerate naturally. All of the trials used hydrogen peroxide from the same container. Table 1 shows the independent, dependent, and controlled variables and the methods of measuring 4.
Figure 3 shows the diagram for serial dilution method 2. While collecting data magnetic stirrer was used to release oxygen gas trapped inside the solution with constant stirring.
Steps 1 and 2 were repeated and performed with different concentrations to obtain valid triplicate trials for each concentration. More concentrated hydrogen peroxide produced more oxygen bubbles and the reaction rate was faster, because it produced oxygen gas rapidly. On the other hand, more diluted hydrogen peroxide reacted slowly and the oxygen bubbles were released sporadically. Graph 1 shows the raw data for pressure build up of different hydrogen peroxide concentrations over time 7.
Data Processing The gradient of a graph represents the change in pressure over time. Thus, it represents the rate of reaction.
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Table 3 shows the rates of pressure increase for different hydrogen peroxide concentrations Mean: average of triplicate trials for each set. Graph 2 shows the processed data of average rate of pressure increase over the hydrogen peroxide concentration Vertical error bar shows the standard deviation of the triplicate trials for the rate of reaction b Horizontal error bar shows the uncertainty in H2O2 concentration. Conclusion The data suggests that as the hydrogen peroxide concentration increases, the rate of diffusion increases and that my hypothesis is valid.
The linear regression and the high R 2 value show that there is a positive correlation between the rate of reaction and the hydrogen peroxide concentration. However, it cannot be proved that the correlation is always directly proportional. When observing the first two data on 0.
for this experiment my main aim is to investigate the effect of temperature on enzyme activity
Perhaps, this might be due to the fact that the hydrogen peroxide concentration was too low. What is the purpose of adding sand to hydrogen peroxide and put at a glowing splint at the mouth of the tube? The purpose of this lab was to study the action of the enzyme catalase.
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Two different, but related enzymes, A and B, can catalyze the reaction. The product P serves as an allosteric inhibitor of enzyme B, but not of enzyme A.
Suppose that you heated a sample of a hydrated ionic compound in a test tube. What might you expect to see inside the test tube, near the top of the test tube? Explain please i really am stumped on this question When heating a liquid sample in a test tube, the mouth of the test tube should be Tube 1: 1 ml of water, 3 ml of glucosephosphate and 3 ml of Enzyme. Tube 2: 1 ml of Ph 7 buffer, 3 ml of glucosephosphate and 3 ml of Enzyme. I have drawn a graph based on these average results with a curve of best fit for each concentration that will allow me to identify any anomalies.
Draw a curve of best fit on your graph.
From the graph, I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is because as the concentration decreased, the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of particles that could react with each other, and so the number of collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased. This meant that there were also less successful collisions, and so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased.
This is because fewer overall collisions took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the activation energy. In other words, since there were fewer molecules initially, this resulted in a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This meant that there were less successful collisions overall see Fig. This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time it takes for a reaction to occur—and a set volume of gas to be evolved—is shorter for higher concentrations of substrate.
This is because at higher concentrations, there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules per second, and so oxygen is evolved more rapidly. From the curves of best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the curve, though they were not excessively distorted.
This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each individual concentration. To find out if the concentrations were accurate as a whole, I worked out the rate of reaction. I did this by working out the gradient of each curve and plotting these values against the concentrations on the x-axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen below.
By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations. Overall, I believe my experiment went well and that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration three times and investigated eight concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as the concentration decreased the volume of oxygen produced also decreased.
Also, most of the points were on or close to the curve of best fit for each concentration. However, there are some factors that I must take into consideration. Firstly, there were limitations on the apparatus that I used. Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error with an upper and lower limit. This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, which means that there could be more or fewer collisions and resulting successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast.
For example, if there were more molecules of yeast, the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. This would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.
The same idea applies to the substrate concentration in that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. This means the amount of substrate could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the same concentration.
So in cm 3 , the actual volume could have been either If there were fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe the substrate concentrations were significantly different because my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in each concentration.
I tried to select the method I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my section on preliminary work, it measured the volume of gas directly and minimised the volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water.
However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small amount from the volumes produced in each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas.
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